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The Concept of Naturalness     |     home
        Title Page, Abstract, Acknowledgments           |           Table of Contents                 |              Introduction           |             Literature Review Part A: Cultural Aspects of Naturalness          |               Literature Review Part B: Ecological Aspects of Naturalness        |          Case Study          |             Conclusions and Recommendations          |              References Cited      

        Table of Contents              



TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                                                  Page

ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………………….      iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………………………….       iv

LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………………………..     viii

LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………………….      xi


CHAPTER I:
   INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………..         1

The Concept of Naturalness in Natural Resource Management…………….       1

Ecosystem Management: An Approach to Managing
Natural Resources…………………………………………………………..………         5

Project Overview…………………………………………………………………….        6
Study Goals and Objectives………………………………………………..         6
Selection of Study Methods…………………………………………. ….…        6

Limitations of the Study……………………………………………………………..       8


CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW

   PART A:
   CULTURAL ASPECTS OF THE CONCEPTION OF NATURALNESS………………..         10

General Perspectives on Nature and Naturalness…………………………….     10
Nature-Skeptical Perspectives…………………………………………….       11
Nature-Endorsing Perspectives……………………………………………       15
Nature and Naturalness as Underpinnings of Culture…………………..        16
Approaches to Understanding Concepts of Nature
   and Naturalness.…………………………………………………………..      19

Concepts of Nature and Naturalness: An Historical Overview………..…….      21
The Philosophical Roots of Attitudes Toward Nature
   and Naturalness……………………………………………………………      21
Historical Shifts in Cultural Perceptions of Nature
   and Naturalness…………………………………………………………...      23
The Influence of Capitalism…………………………………………………       25
The Influence of a Mechanistic Model for Science……………………….       27
The Influence of the Judaeo-Christian Traditions…………………………       32
The Influence of Humanism…………………………………………………       36
Modernism and Postmodernism……………………………………………      42
Complex and Contradictory Interpretations of These
   Historical Influences……………………………………………………….       45
Overall Trends in Western Science and Culture………………………….        49



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Contents--Continued
                                                                                                                                    Page

Concepts of Nature and Naturalness in Contemporary Usage……………….     51
Ideologies: The Range of Contemporary Perspectives on Nature………       52
Generalizing the Broad Range of Ideological Perspectives……………..        56
Contemporary Normative Attitudes…………………………………………      58

PART B:
   ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND ECOLOGICAL
        ASPECTS OF NATURALNESS………………………………………………………….      62

Ecosystem Management: An Ecological Framework
for Managing Natural Resources………………………………………………….     62
Ecology and the Management of Natural Resources………………..….       62
Origins of Ecosystem Management…………………………………..……     64
Ecosystem Ecology and Landscape Ecology within the
   EM Framework…………………………………………………………..…      66
Key Concepts and Principles of Ecosystem Management……………...      75
Definitions of Ecosystem Management………………………………..…..      77

Concepts of Naturalness in Ecosystem Management……………………..…..      79
Natural Systems and Areas………………………………………………....      80
Natural Processes…………………………………………………………….      85
Natural Range of Variability………………………………………………….       91
Natural Disturbance…………………………………………………………..      98
Natural Biological Diversity…………………………………………………..    110
Naturalness and Native Species…………………………………………….    116
The Relationship Between Humans and Nature…………………………..     123

Paradigms for Understanding Naturalness Within
   Resource Management…………………………………………………………….. 128
The Impact of Differing Ideological Perspectives………………………….     128
Developing a Resource Management Context for Naturalness………….     131
An Open Question: Perceptions of Naturalness Specific to
   Resource Management………………….…………………………………    138


CHAPTER III:
   CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………….    140

Overview of the Delphi Method…………………………………………………….  140
Origin and Development of the Delphi Method……………………………     140
General Considerations for Implementing the Delphi Process………….     141

Study Design and Facilitation……………………………………………………...   144
Overall Study Design………………………………………………………..     144
Recruitment and Response Rates of Participants……………………….     145
Development and Administration of Questionnaires…………………….      149

Selection of Methods for Analysis of Data ………………..………..……………  154
Selection of Statistics………………………………………………………..   154
Specific Topics for Analysis…………………………………………………    156



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Contents--Continued
                                                                                                                                  Page

CHAPTER IV:
   SUMMARY OF THE CASE STUDY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS………………………..     161

Categorizing Initial Individual Participant Input………………………………    161

Identifying Key Concepts…………………………………………………………….  162

Evaluating the Range of Individual Participant Opinion………………………. 169

Evaluating Differences Between Subgroups……………………………………..  170

Evaluating Effects of the Delphi Process…………………………………………    174

Summary of Narrative Comments of Participants……………………………….  176


CHAPTER V:
   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………..     179

Conclusions of the Literature Review……………………………………………..    179

Conclusions of the Case Study Results………………….……………………….     180

Recommendations…………………………………………………………………….    186


REFERENCES CITED…………………………………………………………………………..       190


APPENDICES

     Appendix A - Sample Questionnaire Pages……………………………………                222
     Appendix B - Categorizing Initial Participant Input….…………………….……            225
     Appendix C - Identifying Key Concepts……………………………………………             233
     Appendix D - Evaluating the Range of Individual Participant Opinion…..….           268
     Appendix E - Evaluating Differences Between the Delphi Subgroups………            289
     Appendix F - Evaluating the Effects of the Delphi Process…………..…..…..              309
     Appendix G - Survey of Narrative Comments of Participants….……….…….             329



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LIST OF TABLES


Table                                                                                                                                         Page

     1     Ideological categories used to describe various perspectives on
   nature and the relationship between humans and nature………….…….…….          55

     2     Kellert's typological categories describing attitudes toward nature….………….            58

     3     White and Pickett's descriptive categories for components of ecological
   disturbance……………………………………………………………………………     101

     4     Examples of proposed continua describing conditions ranging from
   predominantly natural to predominantly cultural in character…………………..       133

     5     Numbers and percentages of participant questionnaire returns..…………………        149

  B-1     Summary of thematic analysis of responses to the first-round
   questionnaire…………………………………………………………….….………..     228

  C-1     Delphi statements receiving high final mean group ratings, of 3.5
   or above………………………………………………………………………..……..       236

  C-2     Delphi statements with moderate final mean group ratings in the range
   of 3.0 to 3.4……………………………………………………………………………      240

  C-3     Delphi statements with initial subgroup ratings below 3.0, dropped from
further evaluation after the second-round questionnaire…………………………..        243

  C-4     Most frequently occurring themes among Delphi statements submitted
   in the first-round questionnaire responses, and frequency of occurrence
   at high and moderate levels of final mean group ratings………………………..         252

  C-5     Themes with occurrence among statements receiving high final
   mean group ratings, regardless of initial frequency of occurrence……………..        254

  C-6     Facilitator-generated statements addressing the relationship
   between humans and the rest of the natural world……………………………….       259

  C-7     Facilitator-generated statements addressing the possibility of humans
   restoring or creating natural conditions…………………………………………….     260

  C-8     Facilitator-generated statements specifically addressing various other
   concepts related to naturalness…………………………………………..………..     262

  C-9     Facilitator-generated statements addressing the importance of focusing
   on ecosystem process and composition…………………………………………..     263

  C-10     Facilitator-generated statements addressing the issues of native species
   and native human cultures………………………………………………………….      264

  C-11     Facilitator-generated statements addressing the problem of ambiguity in
   defining naturalness………………………………………………………………….     265



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List of Tables--Continued


Table                                                                                                                                        Page


  D-1     Summary of the range of individual ratings received for each Delphi
   statement in response to each questionnaire round……………………………..   270

  D-2     Standard deviations of Delphi statement whole-group ratings……………………     273

  D-3     Collapsed scale scores for questionnaire 2; LRM subgroup………………………    277

  D-4     Collapsed scale scores for questionnaire 2; ESR subgroup………………………    278

  D-5     Collapsed scale scores for questionnaire 2; PDI subgroup………………………..    279

  D-6     Collapsed scale scores for questionnaire 3; whole Delphi group…………………     281

  D-7     Collapsed scale scores for questionnaire 4; whole Delphi group…………………     282

  D-8     Trend categories used in conjunction with collapsed scale
   analysis tables………………………………………………………………………..  283

  D-9     Summary of collapsed scale analysis for trends of agreement and
   disagreement among individual responses to the second-round
   questionnaire………………………………………………………………………….   284

  D-10     Summary of collapsed scale analysis for trends of agreement and
   disagreement among individual responses to the third-round
   questionnaire………………………………………………………………………….   285

  D-11     Summary of collapsed scale analysis for trends of agreement and
   disagreement among individual responses to the fourth-round
   questionnaire………………………………………………………………………….   286

  E-1     Summary of ANOVA results, comparing subgroup ratings for the
   third and fourth-round questionnaires……………………………………………..     300

  E-2     ANOVA results, comparison of subgroup ratings for Delphi statements
originating from LRM subgroup members, third-round questionnaire……………     300

  E-3     ANOVA results, comparison of subgroup ratings for Delphi statements
originating from LRM subgroup members, fourth-round questionnaire…………..     301

  E-4     ANOVA results, comparison of subgroup ratings for Delphi statements
originating from ESR subgroup members, third-round questionnaire…………….     301

  E-5     ANOVA results, comparison of subgroup ratings for Delphi statements
originating from ESR subgroup members, fourth-round questionnaire…………..     302

  E-6     ANOVA results, comparison of subgroup ratings for Delphi statements
   originating from PDI subgroup members, third-round questionnaire…………..     302




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List of Tables--Continued


Table                                                                                                                                        Page


  E-7     ANOVA results, comparison of subgroup ratings for Delphi statements
   originating from PDI subgroup members, fourth-round questionnaire….……..       303

  E-8     Text of Delphi statements showing significant difference among
   subgroup ratings……………………………………………………………………..     303

  E-9     Summary of results from Sheffé method of post-hoc analysis,
comparing pairs of subgroup ratings from the third and fourth-round
questionnaires…………………………………………………………………………..   304

  F-1     Comparison of mean ratings for all statements evaluated in the third
   and fourth-round questionnaires……………………………………………………     311

  F-2     Magnitude and sign-value of change in mean ratings between
   questionnaire rounds ………………………………………………………………..     312

  F-3     Magnitude of net change in mean ratings, in terms of absolute value
   of net change between second-round questionnaire mean and
   final mean group ratings……………………………………………………………..     314

  F-4     Summary of t-tests results, comparing mean subgroup and mean group
   ratings between the second and third questionnaire rounds, and mean
   group ratings between the third and fourth questionnaire rounds…..………….       315

  F-5     Results of t-test comparison of mean subgroup group ratings assigned
   in the second-round questionnaire with mean whole-group ratings
   assigned in the third-round questionnaire…………………………………………     316

  F-6     Results of t-test comparison of initial mean whole-group ratings assigned
   in the third-round questionnaire with final mean whole-group ratings
   assigned in the fourth-round questionnaire……………………………………….      317

  F-7     Summary of changes in standard deviations between questionnaire
   rounds………………………………………………………………………………….   319

  F-8     Comparison of Delphi group and control group mean ratings…………………….        324

  F-9     Summary of t-test comparison of Delphi group and control group
   mean ratings………………………………………………………………………….    324

  F-10     Results of t-test comparison of Delphi group and control group ratings
   for Delphi statements on the fourth-round questionnaire………………………..     325

  F-11     Comparison of Delphi group and control group ratings for
   facilitator-generated statements on the fourth-round questionnaire……………     326

  G-1     Participant summary comments from the final (fourth-round)
   questionnaire………………………………………………………………………….    333




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LIST OF FIGURES


Figure                                                                                                                                       Page


  E-1     Subgroup mean ratings for Delphi statements in the third-round
   questionnaire………………………………………………………………………….     290

  E-2     Subgroup mean ratings for Delphi statements in the fourth-round
   questionnaire………………………………………………………………………….     290

  E-3     Subgroup mean ratings for Delphi statements originating from the
   LRM subgroup, third-round questionnaire…………………………………………      293

  E-4     Subgroup mean ratings for Delphi statements originating from the
   LRM subgroup, fourth-round questionnaire……………………………………….       293

  E-5     Subgroup mean ratings for Delphi statements originating from the
   ESR subgroup, third-round questionnaire…………………………………………      295

  E-6     Subgroup mean ratings for Delphi statements originating from the
   ESR subgroup, fourth-round questionnaire……………………………………….      295

  E-7     Subgroup mean ratings for Delphi statements originating from the
   PDI subgroup, third-round questionnaire………………………………………….      297

  E-8     Subgroup mean ratings for Delphi statements originating from the
   PDI subgroup, fourth-round questionnaire………………………………………..       297

  F-1     Net change in Delphi group mean ratings for all Delphi statements
   carried into the third-round questionnaire…………………………………………      321

  F-2     Change in standard deviations for individual Delphi statements
   between the second and third-round questionnaires…………………………….     321

  F-3     Change in standard deviations for individual Delphi statements
   between the third and fourth-round questionnaires………………………………     322

  F-4     Net change in standard deviations for all Delphi statements evaluated
   in the third and fourth-round questionnaires……………………………..……….     322

  F-5     Comparison of Delphi group and control group mean ratings for
   Delphi statements in the fourth-round questionnaire…………………………….     327



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